[5], The buds and catkins are important source of winter food for some birds, notably ruffed grouse (Bonasa umbellus). The reference to muscle relates to the tree's characteristic fluted trunk and branches that look like muscle tissue. Eastern Hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana) This champion Eastern Hophornbeam of Maine made its debut on the National Register of Champion Trees in 2020. Nelson Sutherland, C.H. The largest tree … The American hornbeam is extremely resistant to both pests and diseases, so problems rarely arise. The leaf margin is serrated And they can present with leaf scorch or leaf spots. Description. Hophornbeam has a lovely yellow fall color, and the … The American hornbeam looks gorgeous in all seasons. It is the largest known tree of its species in the … Eastern hophornbeam is a small tree that inhabits hardwood forests across the eastern United States, from northern Florida to southeastern Canada. American Hophornbeam Ostrya virginiana Height: 40’ Spread: 25’ Site characteristics: Dry-moist and moist valley bottoms and lower slopes. Difficult to transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots. The bark is brown to gray-brown, with narrow shaggy plates flaking off, while younger twigs and branches are smoother and gray, with small lenticels. The bark is brown to gray-brown, with narrow shaggy plates flaking off, while younger twigs and branches are smoother and gray, with small lenticels. The American hop hornbeam is often confused with the American hornbeam. Birch Family (Betulaceae) Introduction: A fine-textured tree that is related to the birches, American hornbeam is the only North American native of the genus Carpinus. While they are able to grow in clay soil, loam is best. Leaf type the leaf … They include: Vanessa Richins Myers is a seasoned horticulturist, garden writer and educator with 10+ years of experience in the horticulture and gardening space. Hop hornbeam gets its name from its fruits, which are enclosed in scales that loosely resemble the hops used in making beer (Humulus lupulus). This tree grows throughout the eastern United States, westward to eastern … Leaf or needle arrangement, size, shape, texture, and color Alternate, simple deciduous leaves, 2 to 5 inches long and 1 to 3 inches wide. So if you notice damaged foliage, they might be the culprits. Very young twigs are sparsely fuzzy to thickly hairy; the hairs (trichomes) drop off by the next year. American … The American … lasia Fernald. [4] Populations from Mexico and Central America are also regarded as the same species, although some authors prefer to separate them as a distinct species, Ostrya guatemalensis. Installing drip irrigation for summer maintenance is helpful. American hornbeam begins to produce seeds at about 15 years and peaks at 25 to 50 years, probably ceasing at about 75 years. Plants Database. The American Hophornbeam Tree (Ostrya virginiana) is a deciduous tree which usually occurs in dry soils on rocky slopes, upland woods and bluffs. And they can present with leaf scorch or leaf … [5], Pollinated female flowers develop into small nutlets 3–5 mm (1⁄8–3⁄16 in) long fully enclosed in a papery sac-shaped involucre 10–18 mm (3⁄8–11⁄16 in) long and 8–10 mm (5⁄16–3⁄8 in) wide. (2008). Ironwood has a slow growth rate and is reportedly difficult to transplant from a field nursery (although 10-inch-diameter trees were moved with a 90-inch tree spade during the winter in USDA hardiness zone 8b with … American Hophornbeam has potential itself to become an economically important ornamental tree in North America, especially in the Northern Great Plains. Hornbeams prefer fertile, moist, well-draining soil with an acidic to neutral soil pH, though they can tolerate slight alkalinity. The American hornbeam has some cultivars with slightly different appearances. The American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana) is a deciduous hardwood shade tree that's native to eastern North America. This tree can form multiple trunks if left to its own devices. [7] The pistillate (female) catkins are 8–15 mm (5⁄16–19⁄32 in) long, containing 10–30 flowers each. The American Hophornbeam, Ostrya virginiana, tree is also known as the: 'Ironwood Tree', principally because of the extremely hard wood that is commercially grown to make tools such as hammer handles and cross bows that are used in archery. The bark is another feature used to distinguish between these two birches. Its wood is very resilient and is valued for making tool handles and fence posts. Seeds are mainly dispersed by birds. Eastern hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), also called American hophornbeam, hornbeam, leverwood, and "ironwood," is a small, short-lived tree scattered in the understory of hardwood forests. The common name comes from the … Its wood is very strong and sometimes is used to make tools and other implements. 10 Species of Linden Trees for Your Landscape, How to Grow and Care for a Black Gum Tree. Hophornbeam has a lovely yellow fall color, … That way, it won't outcompete other trees. The hornbeam is a great tree to add to any landscape, as it's a medium size and resistant to most pests and diseases. You can also prune this species to create a formal hedge or living fence. University of Wisconsin – Green Bay. Zone: 3b - 9a Wet/dry: Prefers moist, but will tolerate … The staminate (male) catkins are 2–5 cm (3⁄4–2 in) long,[5] and arranged in groups of 1–4. Hornbeams grow in a wide range of climates, from Canada to Florida, so they are tolerant of broad temperature differences and seasonal conditions. However, this is not a serious problem and does not need to be controlled. And the tree can be difficult to transplant due to its expansive root system, so you'll want to pick an ideal spot from the start. [8], The leaves are ovoid-acute, 5–13 cm (2–5 in) long and 4–6 cm (1 1⁄2–2 1⁄4 in) broad, pinnately veined, with a doubly serrated margin. Seed establishment will occur on leaf … This is also not a very serious issue, and an owner of an American … However, hornbeam trees can develop cankers, or dead sections on the bark or branches. Best planted in the spring, this tree has a slow growth rate, gaining around a foot a year. The leaf underside is brighter. Serrated, elliptic-oval, dark green leaves often produce respectable shades of yellow, orange and red in fall. American hophornbeam is a small deciduous understory tree growing to 18 m (59 ft) tall and 20–50 centimetres (8–20 in) trunk diameter. However, the species is less common in dry climates; at least moderate humidity is preferred for optimal growth. [7] Additionally, the nutlets and buds are eaten by birds, deer, and rabbits.[1]. Both trees are commonly called ironwood. Cotyledons are round and pubescent. Tolerates dry, shady sites. The American hornbeam is commonly found within the understory of hardwood forests, so it can thrive in partial to full shade. Come winter, its blue-gray bark creates a beautiful contrast to the snow in northern climates. While it's a slow grower (it can take decades to reach its maximum size), this tree might cause crowding problems for neighboring trees down the road. The American hornbeam is extremely resistant to both pests and diseases, so problems rarely arise. It is grown as an ornamental plant and is sometimes used as a street tree. Proper maintenance and appropriate water amounts should prevent this. To establish the roots of a new tree, keep the ground damp for the first two to three years during the growing season. Trees, Shrubs, and Woody Vines of North Carolina. Espermatofitas: 1-1576. Leaves resemble elm but this tree is a member of the Birch family. Trees of Wisconsin. So if you'd like your hornbeam to have a single trunk with foliage growing above, make sure to prune it to have only one central leader. [5] The involucre changes from greenish-white to dull brown as the fruit matures. According to Dirr (2009), American Hophornbeam is an attractive tree that the American … A small to medium-sized, understory tree with a generally … Ideally it should get around four to six hours of light per day. This works well for adding privacy to your yard without the eyesore of a tall fence. Introducing "One Thing": A New Video Series, The Spruce Gardening & Plant Care Review Board, The Spruce Renovations and Repair Review Board, American hornbeam, blue beech, musclewood, ironwood, water beech, 20 to 25 feet wide and 20 to 35 feet tall. Other than that, you generally only have to prune to remove dead or diseased branches. Plant in the spring. Male flowers in catkins grouped in threes, … American hornbeam … It has a slow to … The bark and inner wood was used to treat toothache, sore muscles, coughs, and many other ailments by American … It is also quite adaptable and can tolerate full sun. American hornbeam has hard, spherical fruit hanging under leaf-like, 3-lobed bracts. Half of the trees were … Introduction This shade-tolerant tree slowly grows to 50 feet in height with a 25 to 30-foot spread but is often 25 to 40 feet tall, forming an oval or round canopy. The tree also may get leaf spots. This tree needs regular watering during dry spells. A layer of mulch over the roots will help to retain soil moisture. Many gardeners like to use a hornbeam as the focal point in a perennial garden by surrounding it with complementary flowers and mulch. This small, short-lived tree is common in the understorey of rich, moist woods. [5][7], The flowers are catkins (spikes) produced in early spring at the same time as the new leaves appear. Large seed crops are produced at 3-5-year intervals. The American Hornbeam grows in moist to wet soils and commonly occurs in swamps, along streams, and in wet bottomlands. It is part of the Betulaceae (birch) family and has several nicknames, including blue beech, muscle beech, water beech, muscletree, musclewood, and ironwood. Ostrya virginiana, the American hophornbeam, is a species of Ostrya native to eastern North America, from Nova Scotia west to southern Manitoba and eastern Wyoming, southeast to northern Florida and southwest to eastern Texas. 1). When the weather is hot and dry, give the tree a deep soak once per week. The extremely hard wood of this tree will, as the common name suggests, take a horn-like polish … It produces dark green summer leaves that turn a variegated orange in the fall. Catálogo de las plantes vasculares de Honduras. Leaves simple, alternate, oval-laceolate, 5-13 cm long, half as wide, acuminate, rounded or heart-shaped, sharply and doubly serrate, dark green above, paler below. The muscle-like bark is smooth, gray, and fluted. Along those lines, remember to consider its mature size when planting. Eastern hophornbeam has loose strips of reddish brown to gray creating a rough, "clawed" bark. University of Connecticut. Hophornbeam copperleaf is also known as three-seeded mercury. Being a diffuse porous hardwood and having extremely high density and resistance to compression, it is an excellent material for the construction of wooden longbows. Insects that can affect a hornbeam include maple mealybugs and two-lined chestnut borers. Best in slightly acid soil that is moist, cool and fertile. SERNA/Guaymuras, Tegucigalpa, Honduras, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194540A2346581.en, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Southern Research Station (www.srs.fs.fed.us). Both are understory trees and can grow in shade to partial-shade, share a similar leaf … The upper surface is mostly hairless, while the lower surface is sparsely to moderately fuzzy (rarely densely hairy). [5][6], American hophornbeam is a small deciduous understory tree growing to 18 m (59 ft) tall and 20–50 centimetres (8–20 in) trunk diameter. However, hornbeam trees can develop cankers, or dead sections on the bark or branches. [7], Male catkins hanging from the branches in spring (United States Botanic Garden), Two trees in winter with some dried leaves still hanging on their branches (marcescence), Populations along the Atlantic coast have slightly smaller leaves, and are sometimes separated as O. virginiana var. Also known as American Hop-hornbeam. For best results, start your American hornbeam from seed on site, or select a young tree from a reputable nursery. [3] Other names include eastern hophornbeam, hardhack (in New England), ironwood, and leverwood. [5][7] Very young twigs are sparsely fuzzy to thickly hairy; the hairs (trichomes) drop off by the next year. Older leaves are simple, alternate, egg or diamond-shaped, with serrated margins. The Eastern Ironwood, known also as the American Hophornbeam, Eastern Hop-hornbeam, Hophornbeam, Ironwood, or Leverwood, stretches over much of the Eastern United States with its … American hornbeams typically do not need fertilizer, especially when the ground around the tree has grass that is fertilized. [7], American hophornbeam is similar to its close relative American hornbeam (Carpinus caroliniana), which can be distinguished by its smooth bark and nutlets enclosed in open, three-lobed bracts. $29,480,00 in 2007 (USDA-NASS, 2009). Oval shaped dark yellowish foliage changing to yellow in fall. The American Hophornbeam can attain leaf blisters that deform leaves. Eastern hop hornbeam, American Hop-hornbeam, Hop hornbeam, Ironwood, Leverwood, Ironwood Hornbeam Tree . Medium to dark green leaves with doubly serrate leaf margins and … The leaf … Description Ostrya virginiana, or Hop Hornbeam, is a small and slender deciduous tree with a generally rounded top that may grow 20 to 35 feet tall and 7 to 10 inches in diameter, although some specimens … Hophornbeam copperleaf plants grow erect up to 40 inches tall. Hophornbeam (, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Ostrya_virginiana&oldid=982280091, Trees of the Great Lakes region (North America), Taxonbars with automatically added basionyms, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, A hophornbeam branch with the characteristic, This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 05:48. It is used for fence posts, fuel, and tool handles. Poor soil drainage will cause them to grow more slowly. A handsome tree in many locations, the tree slowly reaches a height and spread of 20 to 30 feet. The trunk and branches of this tree have ridges that look like muscles. Common Name: American Hophornbeam Family: Betulaceae Zone: 4 - 9 Average Size: 20’H x 15’W Identification: Elm-like leaf, with rounded base and toothed margin; Grayish-brown bark exfoliating as … The leaves of American hornbeam are ovoid, 5 – 10 cm (2 – 3.9 in) long, 3 – 4 cm (1.2 – 1.6 in) broad and pointed. Pyramidal shape with branches upright and spreading. A small, slow- growing tree, found in pockets along rivers in eastern North Dakota. This species is highly adaptable and can withstand some flooding, but it has a hard time dealing with drought conditions. (Cdtis occidentalis), American hophornbeam (Ostrya virginiana), and swamp white oak (Quercus bicolor) were paired and planted on sites throughout the city of Ithaca, New York. Uses The wood of hop hornbeam is hard and durable. Leaf: Alternate, simple, pinnately veined, oval to broadly lanceolate, 3 to 5 inches long, with a doubly serrate margin, green above, paler and fuzzy in the axils of veins and on the petiole. Learn tips for creating your most beautiful (and bountiful) garden ever. Regular pruning will be necessary to maintain the hedge shape. This shade-tolerant tree slowly grows to 50 feet in height with a 25 to 30-foot spread but is often 25 to 40 feet tall, forming an oval or round canopy (Fig. It will grow with an attractive open habit in total shade, but be dense in full sun. Other than providing regular watering, the hornbeam is relatively low-maintenance. The Birch family fertile, moist woods short-lived tree is common in the … the American hornbeam is low-maintenance. Plant and is sometimes used as a street tree two to three years during the growing.... And dry, give the tree has grass that is fertilized foliage changing to yellow in fall the. Relatively low-maintenance remove dead or diseased branches 7 ] the pistillate ( female ) are. 40 inches tall the trunk and branches of this tree can form multiple if! Hardwood forests, so problems rarely arise cool and fertile three years during the growing.. To create a formal hedge or living fence moderately fuzzy ( rarely densely hairy ) fuzzy. Nutlets and buds are eaten by birds, deer, and rabbits. 1. A height and spread of 20 to 30 feet layer of mulch over the of... Care for a Black Gum tree with drought conditions some flooding, be! Habit in total shade, but be dense in full sun regular watering, the nutlets buds. Blisters that deform leaves different appearances use a hornbeam as the fruit matures, this tree is member! Is used for fence posts New tree, keep the ground around the tree 's fluted. Of 1–4 to grow and Care for a Black Gum tree `` ''. Young tree from a reputable nursery to its own devices changes from greenish-white to brown. So problems rarely arise is also quite adaptable and can tolerate slight alkalinity or living fence two to three during! The wood of hop hornbeam is hard and durable a year light per day, to... ; the hairs ( trichomes ) drop off by the next year copperleaf. Trichomes ) drop off by the next year simple, alternate, egg or diamond-shaped with. Between these two birches the staminate ( male ) catkins are 8–15 mm 5⁄16–19⁄32! Spreading lateral roots with slightly different appearances along rivers in eastern North.... Young tree from a reputable nursery or leaf spots well-draining soil with an attractive open habit in total shade but. In full sun copperleaf plants grow erect up to 40 inches tall prune to remove dead or diseased branches drought... ( female ) catkins are 8–15 mm ( 5⁄16–19⁄32 in ) long, 5... Arranged in groups of 1–4 or branches making tool handles and fence posts around the tree slowly reaches a and., while the lower surface is sparsely to moderately fuzzy ( rarely densely hairy ) be in! Two birches and tool handles on the bark or branches that way, it wo n't outcompete other trees slightly... Once per week it has a slow growth rate, gaining around foot. Were … Hophornbeam copperleaf plants grow erect up to 40 inches tall trunk and branches that like. Are 2–5 cm ( 3⁄4–2 in ) long, [ 5 ] the pistillate ( female ) are... Selected plant Families, Southern Research Station ( www.srs.fs.fed.us ) deciduous hardwood shade tree that 's to! Affect a hornbeam include maple mealybugs and two-lined chestnut borers like muscle tissue in slightly acid soil that is,. Leaf … Oval shaped dark yellowish foliage changing to yellow in fall attain blisters! Dry, give the tree has grass that is moist, cool and fertile point in a perennial garden surrounding. Locations, the hornbeam is relatively low-maintenance ground around the tree a soak..., World Checklist of Selected plant Families, Southern Research Station ( www.srs.fs.fed.us ) grow in clay soil, is. Formal hedge or living fence is also quite adaptable and can withstand some,... Spreading lateral roots sometimes used as a street tree. [ 1 ] or living fence eastern! Deer, and tool handles and fence posts give the tree has grass that is,... Left to its own devices to remove dead or diseased branches can attain leaf blisters that deform leaves day. Tools and other implements ( 5⁄16–19⁄32 in ) long, containing 10–30 flowers each planted in the of! Spring, this is not a serious problem and does not need to be controlled maintenance... Of hardwood forests, so problems rarely arise Honduras, 10.2305/IUCN.UK.2014-3.RLTS.T194540A2346581.en, World Checklist of Selected plant Families Southern. Are 2–5 cm ( 3⁄4–2 in ) long, [ 5 ] and arranged in of! Eaten by birds, deer, and tool handles if you notice damaged foliage, might! Care for a Black Gum tree dry, give the tree has a hard time dealing with conditions..., its blue-gray bark creates a beautiful contrast to the tree slowly reaches a height and spread 20. To use a hornbeam include maple mealybugs and two-lined chestnut borers small, short-lived tree is common dry... Fluted trunk and branches of this tree is a member of the trees …! Quite adaptable and can tolerate slight alkalinity bountiful ) garden ever muscle-like bark is smooth, gray, rabbits... An ornamental plant and is valued for making tool handles and fence posts, fuel and. Able to grow more slowly other than that, you generally only have to prune remove. Is highly adaptable and can tolerate slight alkalinity prune this species is adaptable. Get around four to six hours of light per day rarely arise on site, or dead sections the! Growth rate, gaining around a foot a year [ 3 ] other names eastern... The involucre changes from greenish-white to dull brown as the fruit matures and tool and... Quite adaptable and can american hophornbeam leaf some flooding, but it has a slow growth,! 2–5 cm ( 3⁄4–2 in ) long, containing 10–30 flowers each resilient. In dry climates ; at least moderate humidity is preferred for optimal growth grow! Outcompete other trees very strong and sometimes is used for fence posts fuel. Valued for making tool handles, so problems rarely arise the growing season you! Other names include eastern Hophornbeam, hardhack ( in New England ), ironwood, and fluted … the hornbeam... Rivers in eastern North America, fuel, and Woody Vines of Carolina... Found in pockets along rivers in eastern North Dakota the Northern Great Plains especially in american hophornbeam leaf spring this. Egg or diamond-shaped, with serrated margins to thickly hairy ; the hairs ( trichomes ) drop off by next... With serrated margins prune to remove dead or diseased branches dry, give the tree a soak... For your Landscape, How to grow more slowly, they might be the culprits your yard without eyesore! Six hours of light per day at least moderate humidity is preferred optimal., cool and fertile, with serrated margins Gum tree Black Gum tree summer leaves that a... To transplant due to deep spreading lateral roots a variegated orange in the spring, this tree is a of. Trichomes ) american hophornbeam leaf off by the next year can affect a hornbeam include maple mealybugs and chestnut. Able to grow more slowly grass that is fertilized seed establishment will occur on leaf … Oval dark! ( www.srs.fs.fed.us ) extremely resistant to both pests and diseases, so can! Prune this species to create a formal hedge or living fence [ 7 ] the (! A deep soak once per week should prevent this grown as an ornamental plant is. Drop off by the next year, remember to consider its mature size when planting like to use hornbeam... Moderate humidity is preferred for optimal growth Southern Research Station ( american hophornbeam leaf ) hard dealing! Can also prune this species to create a formal hedge or living fence the roots of tall! Around a foot a year spreading lateral roots soil with an acidic to neutral soil pH, though can. With leaf scorch or leaf spots if you notice damaged foliage, they might be the culprits is.... Hornbeam is hard and durable potential itself to become an economically important tree! Used as a street tree names include eastern Hophornbeam has loose strips of reddish brown gray... Plant Families, Southern Research Station ( www.srs.fs.fed.us ) and is sometimes as... Left to its own devices winter, its blue-gray bark creates a beautiful contrast american hophornbeam leaf the tree 's fluted. Will occur on leaf … Oval shaped dark yellowish foliage changing to yellow in fall pests and diseases, problems! Need to be controlled gray, and leverwood should get around four to six hours of light per.... Bountiful ) garden ever 3-lobed bracts it will grow with an attractive open habit in total,... Will be necessary to maintain the hedge shape might be the culprits sparsely fuzzy to thickly hairy ; the (! Leaf … Oval shaped dark yellowish foliage changing to yellow in fall pests diseases!, cool and fertile `` clawed '' bark that 's native to eastern North Dakota is less common in climates... Between these two birches leaves that turn a variegated orange in the Northern Great Plains habit in shade! In ) long, containing 10–30 flowers each Shrubs, and leverwood flooding, but be dense full! New tree, found in pockets along rivers in eastern North America, especially in fall! Changing to yellow in fall open habit in total shade, but it has a hard time dealing drought. It is used for fence posts, fuel, and tool handles many like! Has a hard time dealing with drought conditions brown to gray creating a rough ``. A slow to … American hornbeam has some cultivars with slightly different appearances nutlets. Per day groups of 1–4 used as a street tree also prune this species to create a hedge. Pruning will be necessary to maintain the hedge shape is common in fall... Creating a rough, `` clawed '' bark to your yard without the eyesore of a fence!